Conservation Literature including GOLDEN products

For decades Golden Artist Colors has worked closely with the conservation community to solve problems, transfer technology and set artist paint standards. Golden has actively collaborated in conservation studies and co-authored publications. Additionally, Golden products have been included in numerous comparative conservation and case studies, of which a selection is listed below.

In addition to peer-reviewed publications, Golden continuously conducts studies on our own products as well as comparative tests. Some of these tests are self-published at

Table of Contents

  1. Coauthored by /in collaboration with Golden
  2. Golden Conservation Paints - PVA Colors, MSA Colors
  3. Golden Artist Acrylic Dispersion Paints - Paint adhesion, Paints in exterior settings, Cleaning acrylic paints, Inpainting
  4. Golden Acrylic Mediums, Gels, Pastes, Grounds
  5. Varnishes
  6. QoR Modern Watercolors
  7. Company history (Bocour Artist Colors)
  8. Golden Just Paint Articles Regarding Conservation and Taking Care of Artwork
  9. Helpful External Conservation Links

Coauthored by, or in collaboration with Golden

Mark Golden, Varnishing of Acrylic Paintings by Artists, in Conservation of Easel Paintings, pp. 264-268.

James Hayes, Mark Golden, and Gregory D. Smith, From Formulation to Finished Product: Causes and Potential Cures for Conservation Concern in Acrylic Emulsion Paints, in Modern Paints Uncovered, pp. 58- 65.

 Elizabeth Jablonski, Tom Learner, James Hayes, and Mark Golden, Conservation Concerns for Acrylic Emulsion Paints: A Literature Review, in Reviews in Conservation, The International Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works, 2003.

Elizabeth Jablonski, James Hayes, and Mark Golden, ‘Deterioration of artists' paints: Effects and analysis’, in Extended Abstracts from ICOMCC Paintings 1 and 2 Working Groups Interim Meeting, British Museum, London, 2001, pp. 92-95. [Paper Not Under Public Domain]

Mark Golden, ‘Basic Paint Research and Development’, in Extended Abstracts: The Fifth Annual Infrared and Raman Users Group Conference, The Getty Center, Los Angeles 2002, pp.84–6. [Paper Not Under Public Domain]

James Hamm, Ben Gavett, Mark Golden, James Hayes, C. Kelly, John Messinger, Margaret Contompasis and Bruce Suffield, ‘The Discoloration of Acrylic Dispersion Media’ in David Grattan (ed.), in Saving the Twentieth Century: The Conservation of Modern Materials, Canadian Conservation Institute, Ottawa 1993, pp.381–92. [Paper Not Under Public Domain]

Mark Golden, ‘Mural Paints: Current and Future Formulations’, from Mural Painting and Conservation in the Americas symposium at the Getty Conservation Institute, May 16–17, 2003.[Paper Not Under Public Domain]

Golden Conservation Colors

PVA Colors

PVA Color Product Information Sheet

Samantha Alderson, Kristin Renee Deghetaldi, and Brian Baade, ‘PVA Retouching Colors: A Brief History and Introduction to Golden's Newly Formulated PVA Conservation Colors, in Conference paper for Croatia 4th International Meeting On Retouching Of Cultural Heritage, 2017.'s_Newly_Formulated_PVA_Conservation_Colors

Sarah Gowen, Treatment Report By the Upper Lock by John Folinsbee, 2012.

Shuya Wei, Valentina Pintus, Manfred Schreiner, ‘Photochemical degradation study of polyvinyl acetate paints used in artworks by Py–GC/MS’, in Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, Volume 97, September 2012, Pages 158-163.

MSA Colors

MSA Product Information Sheet

Elizabeth Jablonski, ‘A technical description of Golden Mineral Spirit Acrylic paints as used by art conservators for inpainting’, AIC Paintings Specialty Group Catalogue, Volume III: Inpainting Materials, 2011.

Bartoletti, A., Barker, R., Chelazzi, D. et al.Reviving WHAAM! a comparative evaluation of cleaning systems for the conservation treatment of Roy Lichtenstein’s iconic painting, in Heritage Science 89 (2020).

Golden Artist Acrylic Dispersion Paints

Paint adhesion

 Maor, Y., Murray, A. Delamination of Oil Paints on Acrylic Grounds, in MRS Online Proceedings Library1047, 401 (2007).

 Charles S. Tumosa and Marion F. Mecklenburg, ‘Weight Changes in Acrylic Emulsion Paints and the Implications for Accelerated Ageing’, in WAAC Newsletter, Volume 25, Number 3, 2003.

Paints in exterior settings

Nikki van Basten, N.; Stigter, S.; Kensche, S.; Peschar, ‘Retouching Monochrome Painted Metal Outdoor Sculptures: Tests for Claes Oldenburg’s’, in Conserving Outdoor Painted Sculpture: Proceedings from the Interim Meeting of the Modern Materials and Contemporary Art Working Group of ICOM-CC, Kröller-Müller Museum, 2013.

Nikki van Basten, Julia Langenbacher, Catherine Defeyt, Rachel Riven, ‘Local Treatment for Monochrome Outdoor Painted Metal Sculptures: Assessing the Suitability of Conservation Paints for Retouching’, Conference: Conservation of Sculpture Parks, Croatia, 2015.

Cleaning acrylic paints

Richard Wolbers, Amanda Norbutus, and Anthony Lagalante, ‘Cleaning of Acrylic Emulsion Paints: Preliminary Extractive Studies with Two Commercial Paint Systems’, in New Insights into the Cleaning of Paintings, pp. 147 – 158. [Paper Not Under Public Domain]

Bronwyn Ormsby, Robyn Hodgkins, Nelly von Aderkas, ‘Preliminary Investigations Into Two New Acrylic Emulsion Paint Formulations: W & N Artists ’ Acrylic Colours and Golden Open Acrylics’, 2012.


Katherine Holbrow, ‘Conservators anonymous: Post-its from the edge’, Objects Specialty Group Postprints, Volume Ten, 2003.

Golden Acrylic Mediums, Gels, Pastes, Grounds

Meg Loew Craft, & Julie A. Solz, ‘Commercial Vinyl And Acrylic Fill Materials’, JAIC 1998, Volume 37, Number 1, Article 3, pp. 23 to 34.

Ormsby, B., Hagan, E., Smithen, P. and Learner, T. (2008). ‘Comparing contemporary titanium-white based acrylic emulsion grounds and paints: characterisation, properties and conservation’, in Preparation for Painting: The Artists’ Choice and Its Consequences, Eds. J.H. Townsend, T. Doherty, G. Heydenreich and J. Ridge. Archetype, London: 163-171.[Paper Not Under Public Domain]

Hagan, Eric w.s., Charalambides, Maria N, Young, Christina R.T., Learner Thomas J.S., ‘The effects of strain rate and temperature on commercial acrylic artist paints aged one year to decades’, in Applied Physics, 2015. [Paper Not Under Public Domain]


Jill Whitten et al., ‘Golden MSA® Varnish’, in Varnishes and Surface Coatings: Polymeric Varnishes, AIC WIKI,

Jessica Keister, ‘The Investigation of Fading in Outdoor Mural: The Photo-reactive Effect of Titanium Dioxide and Possible Use of Ultraviolet Inhibitors’, unpublished thesis, University of Delaware, 2006. Summary in Tom Learner et al., Conservation Issues in Modern and Contemporary Murals, pp- 226-229:

QoR Modern Watercolors

Heather Brown et. Al, ‘Inpainting Media’, in Photographic Materials Conservation Catalog, 2020.

Julia Nagle, ‘Full treatment of Cecilia Vicuña, Biombo, 1971’, in Case Studies on ICON, The Conservation Institute, 2019.

Clémence Jacqmin and Alexia Soldano, ‘Retouching unvarnished acrylic emulsion paintings, a comparative study’, in 5th Edition of the International Meeting on Retouching of Cultural Heritage, 2019.

Company history (Bocour Artist Colors)

Joyce Hill Stoner, ‘America's colormen: Bocour, Levison, Gamblin, and Golden’, Contributions to the 2004 IIC Congress, Bilbao’, p.189-192, 2004.

Golden Newsletter "Just Paint" Articles Regarding Conservation and Taking Care of Artwork

Helpful External Conservation Links